“Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse.”
Deuteronomy 11:26, JPS 1917 Tanach
“See, I set before you this day,” in other words, perceive that I present before you this very day, the significance of blessings and curses in your lives. According to Rabbeinu Bahya, the so-called, “mental eye” of the spiritually sensitive is able to see the effects of the blessings and curses, on an individual basis, in their own lives. The blessings originate with the Attribute of Mercy, whereas the curses are derived from the Attribute of Justice.
R. Bahya makes reference to the pasuk (verse), “I have seen great wisdom and knowledge” (Ecclesiastes 1:16). As a direct result of our being aware of the blessings and curses in life, we may obtain great knowledge, concerning the causal relationship between our thoughts, speech, and actions, and their consequences. This may lead towards wisdom, having to do with how H’Shem Elokim guides us – each and every person, according to hasgachah peratis (divine guidance), weaving a tapestry of events and consequences in our lives, dependent upon the nature of our conduct.
Additionally, I would mention that King David wrote, “Thy rod and Thy staff, they comfort me” (Psalm 23:4, JPS); he was assured through H’Shem’s guidance and correction, that he would remain on the derech (path). H’Shem’s guidance, as represented by a staff (a sheperds crook) and His correction, as symbolized by a rod. This is akin to the undestanding that blessings can be understood as signs that we are on the right path; and curses are a form of chastisement meant to correct us, whenever we go astray.
“Open Thou mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out of Thy law.”
“And the soul of the people became impatient because of the way.”
– Numbers 21:4, JPS, 1917 Tanach
B’nei Yisrael, as a result of circumstances that seemed beyond their control, grew impatient along the journey. By taking a roundabout way around the country of Edom, they felt they were moving further away from their destination . Their frustration manifested in the form of complaining; yet, the question may be asked, did they really have anything to complain about? What was the nature of their complaint. The Torah records that “the people spoke against G-d, and against Moses: ‘Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.'” (Numbers 21:5, JPS 1917 Tanach).
Commentary explains that they were dissatisfied with the the mode of their existence. In other words, they were discontent not only with the bread and water that H’Shem provided for them, rather, also with the means that they received this provision. In particular, R. Bachya explains, that their complaint disparaged the manna, and the water from the “well of Miriam” that H’Shem had provided for them on their travels, because they were dependent each and every day on H’Shem to give what was necessary for their daily existence. This is in comparison to other nations, who were able to store up a supply of bread and water that was always available.
It was as if they were really saying that the bread and water they received was not in the manner that they would have preferred. Moreover, the manna did not seem substantial enough for the rigours of the wilderness that they had to endure. Yet, H’Shem provided for them on a daily basis, in order to test their faith in him; for they would have to trust that on the morrow, they would be able to collect the manna in the morning, during the weekdays. Of course, on the sixth day, they received a double portion for that day and Shabbat. They were tired of this type of day to day existence, and seemingly yearned for more security in their material needs.
Because of their complaints against Him, and the heavenly provision of manna, G-d sent fiery serpents that bit the people. When they acknowledged their wrong perspective, H’Shem told Moshe to make a copper serpent, and place it on a pole. “And it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live” (Numbers 21:8). Thus, as Rashi comments, when they looked up towards the serpent, they turned their hearts to their Father in Shomayim (Heaven).
In parashas Balak, the “prophet of the nations,” Balaam is hired by Balaak, King of Moab to curse B’nei Yisrael. The concern of the Moabites was that they could potentially be attacked by the Children of Israel. They had heard of how B’nei Yisrael defeated Sichon and Og, two Ammonite kings, and they feared for themselves. Specifically, Torah records that when they saw the multitude of B’nei Yisrael, they were overwhelmed with dread. The Hebrew word translated in this pasuk (verse) is koots. This is the same word used to describe how the Egyptians felt about the Children of Israel, generations ago, when they saw that “the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the more they spread abroad” (Exodus 1:12, JPS).
Balaam’s three attempts to curse Israel are thwarted by H’Shem. Each time, he and Balaak bring seven offerings to H’Shem, hoping to appease Him; yet, H’Shem is adamantly opposed to Balaam’s intent to curse Israel. Balaam was told by G-d even before he set out on his journey to Moab, with the princes sent by Balak, “‘Thou shalt not go with them; thou shalt not curse the people; for they are blessed'” (Numbers 22:12, JPS).
Yet, eventually, in response to the persistence of Balak’s emmisaries, G-d said to Balaam, “‘rise up, go with them; but only the word which I speak unto thee, that shalt thou do’” (Numbers 22:20, JPS). Later, on the journey to Moab, Balaam was reminded by the angel of H’Shem, “only speak the word that I shall speak unto thee, that thou shalt speak” (Numbers 22:35, JPS). So, not only did H’Shem prevent Balaam from cursing Israel, He also caused Balaam to bless Israel instead.
Reflecting on the complaints of the Children of Israel, concerning the provision of manna and water that H’Shem provided for them, it is interesting to note that they were not somehow prevented from complaining; rather, they were rebuked after the fact. If there was some way that H’Shem could prevent us from complaining in life, then, perhaps, instead of words of negativity, we would speak positive words each and every time. Our intended curses would be transformed into blessings. “Set a guard, O L-RD, to my mouth; keep watch at the door of my lips” (Psalm 141:3, JPS).
“Of the first of your dough ye shall give unto the L-RD a portion for a gift throughout your generations” (Numbers 15:21, JPS 1917 Tanach). The commandment, regarding the requirement to first take from the dough being used to make bread for personal consumption, and give a portion to the kohein is given. This is to be a commandment “throughout your generations.” Specifically, as mentioned elsewhere, “the first of your dough, to cause a blessing to rest on thy house” (Ezekiel 44:30). This portion is referred to as “challah.”
It is interesting to note that symbolically, the first portion of dough represents K’nesset Yisrael, “the world’s tithe” to H’Shem (commentary on Numbers 15:20, R. Bachya, sefaria.org). The descendants of Abraham are meant to be a blessing to the world. “In thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed” (Genesis 12:3, JPS). At current, much of the world fails to see, or appreciate the Jewish people as a blessing. Yet, the tides will turn for the good, in fulfillment of prophecy. “And it shall come to pass in the end of days, That the mountain of the L-RD’S house Shall be established as the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow unto it” (Isaiah 2:2, JPS).
Incidentally, today, the entire loaf of bread made from the dough in the kitchen before Shabbos is referred to as challah. Pious Jewish women will separate a small portion, symbolically as terumah, a gift or offering; although, without the opportunity to bestow this gift upon a kohein, as in the times of the Beis HaMikdash (Temple), this small amount of dough is left in the oven to bake separately. Yet, the entire loaf retains the name of the original offering; it is as if to say, symbolically, like the challah, that we ourselves should make every aspect of our lives an offering to H’Shem, for the sake of good deeds, remaining wholehearted, rather than only offering up a small part of our lives to H’Shem.
B”H Shiur for parashas Vayislach 5780 “Jacob sent messengers (malachim).” – Genesis 32:4 According to Sforno, Jacob sent messengers, in order to find out Esau’s state of mind concerning him (Sforno, sefaria.org). Jacob had spent twenty years working for his Uncle Laban; now, Jacob was returning to his native land, as stated in Genesis 31:13. […]
Holiness has to do with sanctification. “G-d blessed the seventh day and sanctified [KDSh] it” (Genesis 2:3). The root meaning of KDSh is to separate. Something that is sanctified is set apart for a holy purpose. In other words, sanctification places a holy status upon an individual or object, for the sake of a connection to G-d. Therefore, the person or object is elevated to a certain degree of holiness.
By way of example, mundane acts, such as eating are sanctified through a blessing said before a meal or snack. On the Sabbath, beginning on Friday evening, candles are lit, and blessings are said over wine and challah (a braided loaf of bread). In this manner, the day is further sanctified through those who remember (zachor) the day, and observe (shamor) the commandment to refrain from work on the Sabbath.
Furthermore, inasmuch that upon waking up every morning, prayers are recited, thanking G-d for preserving and restoring the soul, the day as well the person become consecrated (sanctified). Holiness is brought into the life of a person, by designating time and space as set aside for connecting with G-d.
The word for blessing is berachah, having as a root meaning, “to bend the knee,” or “to bring down.” In saying a blessing over food, for example, it is taught that there is an actual measure of kedushah (substance of holiness), brought down from Above; a sensitive individual may be aware of that kedushah.
A friend of mine mentioned, regarding Shabbos (the Sabbath) in Israel, that he could feel the kedushah in the air. When we direct our lives in a manner that acknowledges the Divine, we enhance the mundane, by eliciting blessings from Above. The prayers, traditions, and communal (as well as personal) places, where we worship, constitute the aspect of religion; whereas the blessings, and sense of kedushah (holiness) received, pertain to the quality of spirituality. These are two sides of the same coin.
“And he went up from thence to Beer-Sheba. And the L-RD appeared unto him the same night, and said: ‘I am the G-d of Abraham thy father. Fear not, for I am with thee, and will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for My servant Abraham’s sake.’ And he builded an altar there, and called upon the name of the L-RD.”
– Genesis 26:23-25, JPS 1917 Tanach
Isaac left Gerar, and went to Beer Sheba, where Abraham had entered into a covenant with Abimelech (Genesis 21:31). Isaac’s refuge seemed transient to him, inasmuch that he feared further antagonism from the Philistines. Yet, H’Shem appeared to him that very night, assuring Isaac of His protection. “Fear not, for I am with thee.”
In response, Isaac built an altar there, “and called upon the name of the L-RD” (see above). After pitching a tent there, his servants dug a well. Shortly afterwards, Abimelech showed up, as might be expected within the framework of the overall narrative (see Genesis 26:13-22).
Isaac questioned him, “Why do you come to me, seeing you hate me, and have sent me away from you?” (Genesis 26:27, JPS). Abimelech recognised by now that Isaac was also blessed, like his father Abraham; so that the quarrels would cease, he offered to renew the covenant that had previously been made with Abraham.
According to Targum Yonatan, Abimelech’s motivation stemmed directly from the nature of his own provisions suffering, after Isaac had formerly left his lands. Therefore, he attributed the decline in his sustenance from the earth, as a result of his contention towards Isaac. This also seems to be in accord with the teaching that a tzaddik (righteous person) brings benefits beyond counting to others in the place where he lives.